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However, certain work activities can give rise to significantly enhanced exposures that may need to be controlled by regulation.

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NORM is the acronym for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, which potentially includes all radioactive elements found in the environment.

However, the term is used more specifically for all naturally occurring radioactive materials where human activities have increased the potential for exposure compared with the unaltered situation.

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However certain industries handle significant quantities of NORM, which usually ends up in their waste streams, or in the case of uranium mining, the tailings dam.

Over time, as potential NORM hazards have been identified, these industries have increasingly become subject to monitoring and regulation.Occupational health issues include the exposure of flight crew to higher levels of cosmic radiation, the exposure of tour guides to radon in caves, exposure of miners to radon underground, and exposure of workers in the oil & gas and mineral sands industries to elevated radiation levels in the materials they handle.The list of isotopes that contribute to natural radiation can be divided into those materials which come from the ground (terrestrial sources – the vast majority) and those which are produced as a result of the interaction of atmospheric gases with cosmic rays (cosmogenic).However from the perspective of radiation doses to people, such a distinction is completely arbitrary.Exposure to naturally occurring radiation is responsible for the majority of an average person’s yearly radiation dose (see also Nuclear Radiation and Health Effects paper) and is therefore not usually considered of any special health or safety significance.This chart provides an overview of the comprehensive program being developed for RFG2018.

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